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Table of pears part2 PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 03 November 2009 06:27

Variety

Country

Color

Creation/Origin

Harvest/Season

Description

Carmen

Russia

Wine-red when ripe, becomes brownish-red in consuming period. Numerous hypodermal dots.

Originated in All-Russian research institute of genetics and selection of fruit plants named after I.V. Michurin by hybridization of Doch Blankovoy and Red Williams varieties. Author: S.P. Yakovlev.

Ripen by mid August.

Medium sized fruit, shortly pyriform, of regular shape, with dry skin. Short and thick Stalk. Flesh is slightly creamy of average density, half-oily, juicy, acid-sweet taste with light aroma, without tartness.

Calebasse Kickx

Belgium

Pale straw-yellow marked here and there with a few patches of very thin pale cinnamon russet.

A seedling of Van Mons, which he dedicated to M. Kickx, Professor of Botany at Ghent.

Becomes quite pasty in the middle of October.

Below medium size, obovate, somewhat uneven. Stalk is fleshy towards the base, where it is united with the fruit by a few folds. Flesh is whitish, coarse-grained, rather gritty, half-buttery, not very juicy, and little flavour, but with a musky fragrance.

Caroline Hogg

England

Skin, covered all over with a thick rather deep brown russet, but on the side next the sun it is a reddish brown russet.

This variety was raised from seed by Mr. John Mannington, of Uckfield, Sussex, and the first fruiting occurred in 1870.

In use during the end of November and December.

Below medium size, Bergamot-shaped, even and regular, with much of the form of Winter Nelis. Stalk is slender, placed in a small round funnel. Flesh is very tender and melting, rich and vinous, with an abundant, finely perfumed juice, and a flavour similar to that of Winter Nélis.

Catherine

England

Yellow, with a red blush streaked with darker red on the side sunny side, and strewed with numerous russety dots.

It is an old English pear.

Ripen in August.

Small, pyriform. Skin is smooth and shiny. Stalk is placed on the apex of the fruit without depression. Flesh is firm, fine-grained, very juicy and sweet, but soon becomes mealy.

Caucasus

Russia

Greenish-yellow with diffused red coloring covering the most area of the fruit. green, well visible, medium hypodermal dots.

Originated on Stavropol trial station of promiculture from a cross between Williams x Flemish Beauty varieties.

Ripen in August

Very beautiful, univariate, pyriform, uneven, of regular shape. Skin is of average thickness, oily. Medium, thick, curved, aslant set Stalk. Creamy, tender, oily, very juicy, sweet aromatic flesh.

Chaumontel (Bezi de Chaumontel; Beurri de Chau-montel; Beurre d'Hiver; Guernsey Chaumontel; Grey Achan; Oxford Chaumontel; Winter Beurre)

France

Yellowish-green, covered with numerous russety spots and patches, and with brownish-red next the sun.

This old variety was discovered around 1685 growing in the garden of the Chateau Chaumontel, between Luzarches and Chantilly on the road from Amiens to Paris.

In use from November till March

Fruit large, oblong, or obtuse-pyriform, irregular and undulating in its outline. Skin rather rough. Flesh yellowish-white, buttery and melting, rich, sugary, and highly perfumed.

Chernomorskaya Yantarnaya (Black Sea Amber)

Russia

Greenish-yellow, turning yellow with a blush on the sunny side.

Originated by planting seeds of Beurre Bosc from an open pollination. Authors: P.D. Yurchenko and T.I. Moskalenko.

Ripen mid August.

Fruits of medium size, regular-shaped, symmetrical. surface is smooth. Central Stalk in inflorescence fruit is medium, slightly set aslant.
Flesh is white, creamy, juicy, buttery, sweet, with acidity, of outstanding flavors qualities.

Chernomyaska buerachnaya

Russia

Light green, without a blush.

Lower Volga variety, common in the north of the Volgograd region in the semi-wild form, grows on the slopes of gullies and replicates by rootstocks.

Ripen in late August.

Small and below average size, non-outlined (weight from 48 to 80 g), Bergamot-like, dry to the touch. Stalk is short, woody, light-brown, with no callus.
flesh is dark-brown with a high content of large stony cells, juicy, sweet, with medium aroma.

Chizhovskaya

Russia

Yellow, the fruit that grow on southern side have a little blush.

Hybrid of Lukashovka x Olga x Lesnaya Krasavitsa (Flemish Beauty)

Ripen from mid- to late August

Large, beautiful, with excellent taste (weight up to 300g).  Without grain.

Clapp’s Favorite

USA

Greenish yellow with a red cheek.

Flemish Beauty x Williams’. Bred by

Thaddeus Clapp, Dorchester, Massachusetts, USA, before 1860.

Harvest: Early season.

Obtuse pyriform, large, (red skin mutant, Starkimson). Tender, soft, sweet, juicy, excellent quality.

Colmar d'Aremberg (Fondante de Jaffard; Karto-fell)

Belgium

Lemon  marked with spots and patches of russet

Raised by Van Mons around 1821.

Ripen in October.

Fruit large, obovate, uneven, and bossed in its outline. Flesh yellowish-white, coarse-grained, half-melting, juicy, and briskly flavored.

Colmar D’Été

Belgium

Pale greenish yellow turns to yellow when quite ripe; with dull red freckles over the whole exposed side on the sunny side, and covered with russet dots.

A seedling of Van Mons, raised in 1825.

Ripen in the beginning of September.

Small, obovate, or roundish obovate. Skin is smooth, and rather shiny. Stalk is rather woody, hazel brown, thick, and rather fleshy at the insertion, and placed in a narrow, even, and round cavity. Flesh is yellowish, half-melting, and in warm seasons quite melting. The juice, honey sweet, rich flavor, and a noyau aroma.

Colmar Neill

Belgium

Uniform yellow color, dotted and lined with cinnamon-colored russet

Raised by Van Mons, and named after late Dr. Patrick Neill, of Edinburgh.

Ripen in October, but soon becomes mealy.

Fruit very large, obovate. Skin smooth and glossy. Flesh white, very tender, buttery and juicy, with a high musky flavor.

Colmas Van Mons

Belgium

Yellowish-green, much covered with a thick coat of smooth brown russet.

Raised by M. Duquesne at Enghein, in 1808, and named ColmarVan Mons.

Ripen from November to January.

Fruit medium sized, pyramidal, irregular and uneven in its outline. Flesh yellowish, buttery and melting, very juicy and sweet, but not highly flavored.

Comice

England

Pale green/brown color which lightens when approaching full ripeness

Originated during the mid 19th century

Harvest: Mid August

Large, plump pear, very sweet, creamy fruit, with a juicy and somewhat buttery texture.

Comte de Flandre (St. Jean Baptiste)

Belgium

Almost entirely covered with large freckles of cinnamon-colored russet.

A seedling of Van Mons, which fruited at Louvain in 1843, the year after his death, and was named after the brother of King Leopold II.

Ripen in November and December.

Fruit very large, pyriform. Flesh yellowish, melting, juicy, and sugary, with a rich and agreeably perfumed juice.

Concorde

Patent (Flemings)

England

Green, developing an

attractive yellow ground colour with excellent

skin finish.

Conference x Doyenné du Comice, F. Alston, East Malling, England, 1968, selected

1977.

Harvest: Late season.

Pyriform, similar to Conference.  Firm, juicy, sweet with flavour.

Conference

England

Yellowy green with slight russet.

Leon le Clare de Laval open pollinated

seedling, introduced to England by Thomas

Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, 1885, named

for the National Pear Conference in England in

1885.

 

Harvest: Mid to late season, 6-8 kg (12-18 psi).

Long fruit prone to smooth russet on skin. Good flavor, sweet and juicy when ripe, with soft, grainy textured flesh.

Conseiller de la Cous (Bo de la Cour; Beau de la Cour; Marechal de la Cour)

Belgium

Yellowish-green, covered with dark green dote, and with a patch of russet round the stalk.

Introduced by Van Mons in 1841.

Ripen in January.

Fruit below medium size, pyriform. Skin smooth. Flesh white, half-melting, juicy, and briskly flavored, but not particularly rich.

Cosmic

Russia

Greenish-yellow with dark-green hypodermal dots and small diffused blush on the light side.

Originated in I.V. Michurin All-Russian research institute from a cross between Doch Blankovoy and Russian Malgorzhatka. Authors: G.A. Lobanov, Z.I. Ivanova.

Ripen by late August

Below medium size, mass – 90-110g, univariate, turbinate form. Solid skin. Thick or medium thick, long straight or slightly curved, straightly or aslant set, Stalk thickening at the base.

Corella

Australia

Greeny yellow base with red over half the surface or more.

Probably a seedling of Forelle.

Harvest: Late season, after Packham’s, similar to Winter Cole, 7-9 kg (16-20 psi).

Obtuse pyriform, small.Tender, soft, white flesh, juicy with some flavor.

Craig’s Favorite

Scotland

Yellowish green in shade with thin russet with dots and patches of coarser russet; dull red streaked with livelier red, mottled with orange, and thickl large grey russety dots on the sunny side.

This is of Scotch origin, has been raised in the neighbourhood of Perth.

Ripen in September.

Medium size; obovate-turbinate. Stalk is short, stout, and fleshy, particularly at the base, and obliquely placed, with a fleshy protuberance connecting it with the fruit on one side of it. Flesh is white, half buttery, juicy, sugary, and fragranted.

Crawford (Bancrief; Lammas [of the Scotch])

Scotland

Greenish-yellow, changing to pale yellow, with sometimes a tinge of brownish-red next the sun.

The earliest Scotch pear, and is grown over the whole extent of the country.

Ripen in the middle of August.

Fruit below medium size, obovate. Flesh white, buttery, juicy, sweet, and with a husky flavor.

Croft Castle

England

Greenish-yellow, covered with large brown dots.

This is a seedling raised by Mr. T. A. Knight.

Ripen in October.

Fruit medium sized, oval. Flesh very juicy, sweet, and perfumed.

Daghestan Yellow

Daghestan, Russia

Yellow base with bright red beautiful covering.

Originated by geographically distanced hybridization of Williams variety with Gimrinskaya variety. Authors: T.B. Alibekov and Ye.P. Matasova.

Harvest: late August.

Above medium size, average mass – 170-192g, maximal 300-350g, oblong pear-shaped, smooth surface. Stalk of average length and width. Flesh is light-creamy, juicy, melting, oily, harmonious acid sweet, fine desert taste.

Dalnevostochnica (Far East)

Russia

Bright yellow with numerous dark-brown hypodermal dots.

Originated by pollination of a Chinese variety – Dan-San shui with Tyoma variety by A.V. Bolonyayev in Far East research institute of agriculture. It is a complex hybrid of three varieties – Ussuriysk, Chinese and Western.

Ripen by late September.

Below medium size (average mass – 82g, maximal 105g), uniform, regular pyriform shape with long slightly curved Stalk, set in clusters of 3-5, even relief, smooth surface, with small knobs near Stalk. Flesh is white, juicy with stony inclusions, sweetly-subacid harmonious taste and light aroma.

Dana’s Hoyey

USA

Greenish yellow turns to quite yellow when fully ripened, dotted and veined with pale brown russet.

An American pear raised at Roxbury, Mass., by Mr. Francis Dana, and named after the well-known nurseryman of Boston Mr. C. M. Hovey, an author of “The Fruits of America”.

In use from November till January.

Small, obovate and regular. Stalk is placed in a small round funnel. Flesh is yellowish, tender, melting, and juicy, sugary, and with a rich fragrance.

Debutant

Russia

Greenish with a little tan at the harvest time becomes light-yellow with orange blush in storage.

Originated in All-Russian research institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants named after I.V. Michurin, by S.P. Yakovlev from a open pollination of Osennyaya Yakovleva variety.

Ripen by the first half of August.

Medium sized and uniform, pyriform, with a long neck. Long and curved Stalk. Flesh has a good subacid-sweet taste.

Dekabrinka

Russia

Green at the harvest time, dark-yellow with a slight blush when ripe. A lot of gray well visible hypodermal dots.

Originated in South-Ural research institute of Fruit and Vegetable Growing and Potato Growing, from a cross between selected seedling 41-16-1 (Limonka Isilkulskaya x Flemish Beauty) and elite seedling №143. Authors: E.A. Falkenberg, M.A. Mazunin, L.I. Bolotova.

Ripen by the second decade of September.

Medium or below medium size (average mass – 100g, maximal 120g), uniform, pyriform, regular shape with a smooth surface, highly marketable.

Delices Everard

France

Uniform bright yellow marked with dots and specks of russet.

Raised by a gardener at Tournay, M. Gabriel Everard in 1840, and it received a first-class certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1875.

Ripen in October,

Small, roundish turbinate. Skin is smooth and shiny. Stalk is short, placed level with the surface.Flesh is with a salmon tint, like Josephine de Malines, quite tender, buttery, and melting, very juicy, with a sweet delicious flavor and fine aroma.

Delices Froyennes

France

Brown russet.

Raised by M. Isidore Degand, gardener to Comte de Germiny, at Froyennes, near Tournay, and was honoured by the Society of Tournay, 5th November, 1853.

Ripen in November.

Medium sized, about three inches wide, and three and a half long; ovate or roundish obovate. Stalk is stout, fleshy at the base, placed on the apex of the fruit without depression. Flesh is tender, melting, and very juicy, vinous, and with a fine aroma.

Delices d'Hardenpont

Belgium

Bright lemon-yellow when ripe, thickly covered with pale brown russet.

Raised by Abbe Hardenpont, of Mons, in Belgium, in 1759, at his garden, which located at the Porte d'Havre, at Mons.

Ripen in November.

Fruit above medium size, obtuse-pyriform, irregular and uneven in its outline. Skin smooth. Flesh white, tender, buttery, and melting, rich, sugary, and perfumed.

Delices de Jodoigne

Belgium

Pale yellow, marked with flakes and dots of pale brown russet.

This one was raised by M. Simon Bouvier, of Jodoigne, in 1826.

Ripen in the beginning and middle of October.

Fruit medium sized pyriform. Skin thin. Flesh half-melting, sweet, sugary, and aromatic.

Desertnaya Rossoshanskaya (Rossoshan Desert)

Russia

Light yellow covered with green and gray hypodermal dots and small diffused pinkish blush.

Originated on Rossoshan zonal trial station of promiculture from a cross between Beurre Winter Michurin and Flemish Beauty. Authors: G.D. Neporozhnyy and A.M. Ulyanischeva.

Harvest in Voronezh oblast falls on early September.

Above medium size (average mass -160g) short pyriform or apple-shaped, even, smooth. Medium Stalk. Flesh is white and slightly creamy, juicy, tender, sweet, without stony cells, has a good or excellent desert taste.

Detskaya (Babyish)

Russia

Light-yellow with pinkish-orange blush.

Originated from a cross between interspecific hybrid №8 and Summer Duchesse. Authors: Yu.A. Petrov, N.V. Yefimova.

Uneven ripening from the end of July to mid August.

Below medium size, mass – 60-80g, short pyriform, with hills around Stalk. Uneven surface. Medium Stalk. Flesh is creamy, juicy, sweet, has an excellent taste quality.

Deux Soeurs

Belgium

Greenish yellow, sometimes entirely covered with brown russet, but always more or less mottled and dotted with russet.

The original tree sprang up in the garden of two sisters, the Misses Knoop, at Malines, and hence the name of Deux Sœurs.

Ripen in the end of October.

Fruit, large, oblong, ribbed and undulating. Skin is smooth. Stalk is placed obliquely in a narrow cavity by the side of a fleshy protuberance. Flesh is white, buttery, melting, and very juicy, with a sweet, sprightly juice, and rich flavor, not unlike Marie Louise, but quite distinct from it.

Dobryanka (Sentyabrina)

Russia

Dark-green, later – yellowish-green with diffused striped brownish-red coloring of average intensity. 

Originated on Sverdlovsk selection station of promiculture by L.A. Kotov and G.N. Tarasova in 1975 from a cross between number 2-39 and Pervenec (Firstling) variety.

Ripen by the first of September.

From medium (mass 145g) to above medium size (190g), oblong, lemon-pyriform, isosceles, with greater diameter at the center of the fruit and smooth surface. Skin is dry and mat. Long, rather thick, slightly curved, straightly set Stalk. Flesh is yellowish, of average density, very juicy, tender, without stony cells, has a very good acid-sweet excellent taste.

Doch Amura (Amur’s Daughter)

Russia

Yellow with brownish-red diffused blush, small light brownish hypodermal dots.

Originated as a result of hybridization of Tyoma with Shuranovka №5. Authors: A.V. Bolonyaev, A.V. Chuiko, G.T. Kazmin.

Ripen by mid September.

Below medium size (average mass - 68 g, maximum 90 g), relatively uniform, oval, smooth surface, slightly uneven at the Stalk. Short Stalk of average thickness. Flesh is white, of average density, half-oily, has an acid-sweet harmonious taste with a strong flavor.

Doch Blankovoy (Blankovaya’s Daughter)

Russia

Green during harvest, yellowish-green when fully ripe, with numerous, clearly visible green hypodermal spots.


Originated by I.V. Michurin from a selected seedling Blankovaya in 1906.

Consumption season: the end of August - beginning of September.

Medium size, widely-conical, truncated at the stalk.
Stalk is short or medium long, thick. Flesh is white, coarse, very juicy, sweet, satisfactory or above average quality.

Doctor Andry

France

Bright yellow with patches and dots of fawn-coloured russet, especially at the stalk and the eye.

It was raised by M. Boisbunel, of Rouen, and named after Dr. Andry, President of the Horticultural Society of Paris.

Ripen in November.

Medium sized, roundish turbinate or Bergamot-shaped. Skin, clear Stalk is short and stout, placed in a small funnel. Flesh is melting, very juicy, somewhat gritty, sweet, and with a musky fragrrance.

Doctor Hogg Bergamot

England

Grass-green, with a dull brownish red blush on one side, with russet, which is thickly strewed with large rough ashy grey dots, covering over the whole surface; the green becomes deep yellow as it ripens, and the dull red a bright deep red, shining cheek, with an orange glow.

Raised by Mr. Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, from seed of Gansel's Late Bergamot, and was awarded a first-class certificate by the Royal Horticultural Society, in 1878.

Ripen in September.

Produced in great clusters; small, the size of Seckle; obovate, even and regular. Stalk is short and stout, placed in a narrow funnel. Flesh is melting, slightly gritty at the core, remarkably sweet, like honey, with a fine brisk acidulous flavour, and a lemon perfume.

Doctor Jules Guyot

France

Pale yellow when ripe, with a thin crimson blush on the sunny side.

Raised by MM. Baltet frères, nurserymen, at Troyes, and was first sent into commerce in 1873.

Ripen in the middle of September

Large, oblong-obovate, uneven on the surface and not unlike Williams's Bon Chretien in shape and color. Stalk is very stout and fleshy, placed rather obliquely in a round funnel. Flesh is tender, melting, and very juicy, of good flavor, but soon becomes pasty and insipid.

Dolgozhdannaya (Elegy) eng: Long-awaited

Russia

Greenish-yellow with diffused brick-red blush at the time harvest and yellow or golden-yellow with a diffused, well-marked brick-red blush at the consuming period.

Originated in South-Ural research institute of Fruit & Vegetable Growing and Potato Growing, from a cross between Ussuriysk №78 and Flemish Beauty. Authors: P.A. Zhavoronkov, A.L. Danilova, M.A. Mazunin, L.I. Bolotova.

Late Autumn

Small (average weight 60 g, maximal 90 g), non univariate, dually oblong-conical or ovoid, slightly ribbed. Skin is moderately thick, rough, with a waxy coating. Flesh is creamy, granular, very juicy, has an sweet-acid taste.

Downton

England

Greenish yellow with patches and veins of dark and pale brown russet, particularly on the sunny side where it is completely covered and assumes a reddish brown touch; in some parts the russet is quite smooth and in others rough.

Raised by Mr. T. A. Knight, President of the Horticultural Society of London.

Ripen in December.

Medium sized, oval, somewhat bossed. Stalk is woody, placed between two lips. Flesh is yellowish, not quite melting but tender, with a moderate acidulous flavor which predominates over both sweetness and aroma.

Doyenne Du Comice (Decana Del Comizio)

France

Greenish yellow with brownish red blush, patches of russet around stem and eye.

Horticultural Society of Maine and

Loire, Angers, France, 1849. To USA 1850,

seedling selection.

Harvest: Late season, 4-6 kg (9-12 psi).

Turbinate, large.  Pale yellow flesh, extremely

melting and delicate, juicy with rich flavor.

Doyenne Downing

France

Dull greenish yellow ground with large patches of brown russet.

It was found at Haute Perche, near Angers, in 1851, and was dedicated by M. André Leroy to the memory of Mr. A. J. Downing, the American pomologist.

Ripen in the last week of September,

Medium size, roundish, even, or Bergamot-shaped. Stalk is short and fleshy, placed with scarcely any depression. Flesh is very white, rather firm, half-melting, not very juicy, and with a pleasant anise flavor.

Doyenne Goubault

France

Pale yellow, with markings of russet about the stalk and the eye, and covered with russety dots.

Originated by M. Goubault in 1843. Seedling selection.

Ripen in January.

Fruit above medium size, obovate, inclining to pyriform. Flesh melting, juicy, rich, sugary, and aromatic.

Doyenne Robin

France

Yellowish with bright russet.

Originated at Angers in 1840 by a gardener named Robin.

Ripen in October.

Large; somewhat oval or roundish obovate. Stalk is stout, placed in a deep and wide funnel. Flesh is melting, juicy, sweet, and vinous, with a moderate aroma.

Doyenne Sieulle (Bergamotte Sieulle; Beurré Sieulle; Sieulle)

France

Uniform deep yellow all over, strewed with russet dots, and with a blush of crimson next the sun.

This one was discovered as a wilding by M. J. B. Clement Sieulle, gardener to the Duc de Choiseul, at Vaux Praslin, near Melun, and was first propagated in 1815.

Ripen in November.

Medium sized, roundish turbinate or Bergamot-shaped. Skin is smooth. Stalk is stout, placed in a narrow, round funnel. Flesh is yellowish, half-buttery, not very melting nor very juicy, sweet, and with an agreeable almond flavor.

Dubovskaya Rannyaya

Russia

Greenish-yellow with diffused red blush.

Originated in Dubovskiy selection station of fruit plants by pollination of Beurre Winter Michurin with Flemish Beauty. Authors: V.A. Korneev, R.V. Korneev.

Ripen by the first decade of August.

Medium (mass – 125-130g), regular, short pyriform. Flesh is yellowish-white, tender, juicy, half-oily, sweet, has a good taste.

Duc D’Aumale

Belgium

Greenish yellow, mottled all over with fine cinnamon-coloured russet.

A posthumous seedling of Van Mons, which first fruited with M. Bivort in 1847.

Ripen in the first week in October, after which it soon decays at the core.

Pyriform, even in its outline, and not much unlike Marie Louise in appearance. Stalk is obliquely placed on one side of the axis in a small round funnel. Flesh is whitish, half-buttery, slightly gritty, and not very juicy; sweet, and with a rich honied flavor.

Duc de Morny

France

Greenish with light brown russet.

Raised by M. Boisbunel, of Rouen.

In use from November till January.

Large, short obovate, uneven Stalk is obliquely placed in a small funnel. Flesh is very tender, melting, sweet, and briskly flavored.

Duc de Nemours (Canet)

Belgium

Yellow, strewed with reddish and grey dots

Raised by Van Mons, and sent to M. Poiteau, at Paris, in 1833, who named it after M. Noisette, the nurseryman of that city. It was also sent in 1831, under No. 1660, to M. Bouvier, of Jodoigne, who named it Duc de Nemours after fruiting.

Ripen in December.

Fruit growing in clusters, oblong-obovate. Flesh rather coarse-grained, juicy and sweet.

Duchesse d'Angoulême (Duchesse; Éparonnais; de Pezenas)

France

Pale dull yellow, covered with veins and freckles of pale brown russet.

The original tree was observed by M. Anne-Pierre Audusson, nurseryman at Angers, growing in the garden of the farm of Éparonnais, near Champigné, in Anjou, he sold the trees procuring grafts of it in 1812 under the name of Poire des Éparonnais. In 1820 it was requested of Duchesse d'Angoulême to be permitted to name the pear after her, which was granted.

Ripen during October and November.

Fruit large, sometimes very large, roundish-obovate, very uneven and bossed on its outline. Flesh white, buttery, and melting, with. a rich flavor when well ripened; but generally it is coarse-grained and half-melting, juicy, and sweet.

Duchesse de Bordeaux (Beurré Perrault)

France

Lemon overspread with thin pale brown russet and specks and small mottles; the russet is thicker of dark cinnamon color on the sunny side.

Raised by If. Seeker, at Gohardière Montjean, near Angers, and was first exhibited in 1859.

Ripen in the end of December, and continues in use till March.

Small, Bergamot or Doyenné-shaped, uneven. Stalk is thickest at the base, curved, and inserted without depression on the abrupt end of the fruit. Flesh is yellowish, tender, melting, juicy, with a rich flavor and delicate aroma, similar to that of the Seckle.

Dulya Astrhanskaya

Russia

Yellow with a small light-pink blush. A lot of green well visible hypodermal dots.

It is assumed near delta of the Volga where it is spread the most.

Harvest: the second decade of September.

Medium sized fruit mass – 130g, outlined, pyriform, very oily to feel. Long, curved, woody Stalk without callus; bare and brown stands out of vallecula. Flesh is white, coarse-grained, with many large stony cells, averagely juicy, sweet, with an average flavor.

Dulya Novgorodskaya

Russia

Red blush and red dots

It is an old Russian variety spread in Novgorord oblast.

Harvest: late August or early September

Fruits small or below average size (60-80 g weight), elongated-oval shape. Moderate acid-sweet taste. Quickly deteriorate, becoming mealy after harvest.

Dunmore

Belgium

Greenish, marked with numerous dots and patches of brown russet, and with a brownish-red tinge next the sun

The original tree exists in the garden of the late M. Durondeau, at the village of Tongre-Notre-Dame, near Ath.

Ripen in September and October.

Fruit large, oblong-obovate. Flesh yellowish-white, buttery, and melting, with a rich sugary flavor.

Easter Beurre (Beurre de la Pentecote; Beurre An-glaise; Beurre de Paques; Beurre de Hiver de Bruxelles; Bergamotte d'Hiver; Bergamotte de la Pentecote; Ber-gamotte Tardive; Canning; Canning d'Hiver; Doyenne d'Hiver; Doyenne d'Hiver Nouveau; Doyenne de Paques; DoyennS de Printemps; Du Patre; Philippe de Paques; Seigneur d'Hiver; Sylvange d'Hiver)

Belgium

Pale green at first, but inclining to yellowish-green, and sometimes with a brownish tinge next the sun, marked with a few patches of russet, and strewed with numerous large russet dots.

This variety originated in the monastery garden of the Capucins at Louvain, and was first distributed by Dr. Van Mons.

In use from January till March.

Fruit large, obovate, inclining to ovate. Stalk is stout, inserted in a narrow and pretty deep funnel. Flesh white, buttery, and melting, very juicy, sugary, and richly flavored.

Edouard Moren

Belgium

 Greenish yellow dotted red, and with a reddish blush on the sunny side.

Raised by M. Gathoy, a nurseryman at Liège, and supposed to have originated as a cross between Fondante de Brest and White Doyenne. It was named after of M. Edouard Morren, Professor of Botany in the University of Liege.

Ripen in October.

Large, obovate, narrowing abruptly towards the stalk. Stalk is set on the apex of the fruit, without a cavity. Flesh is tender, juicy, and melting, slightly gritty, sweet, rich, and finely flavored.

Eldorado

USA

Greeny yellow with very little

russet, free of blemish and resists mechanical damage.

Chance seedling probably Winter Nelis

x Williams’ by R. Patterson, Placerville,

California, U.S.A. 1945. (South African strain is

like a very early Williams’, flowers 2-3 weeks

before Williams’ and matures just before

Williams’, known as Early Bon Chretien)

Harvest: 10 days after Packham’s, similar to

Comice, with long harvest season.

Medium size, oblong pyriform. Moderately firm, juicy, fine textured, melting flesh with very good flavor.

Elton

England

Greenish, almost entirely covered with thin grey russet, and marked with patches of coarser russet, with a tinge of orange on the part exposed to the sun.

T. A. Knight Esq. discovered and brought into use this variety, which was growing in an orchard in the parish of Elton, Herefordshire, in 1812. Origin unknown.

Ripen in September, but does not keep long.

Fruit medium sized, oval. Flesh firm, crisp, juicy, rich, and excellent. It is frequently without a core and pips, the flesh being solid throughout.

Emerald

Belgium

Pale green, with pale brownish-red next the sun, and covered with russety dots.

Raised by Major Esperen, of Malines, and named after M. Emile Berckmans, of Heyst-op-den-Berg, who continued the collection of M. Esperen.

Ripen in November and December.

Fruit medium sized, obovate, rather uneven in its outline. Flesh buttery, melting, and richly flavored.

Emile d'Heyst

Belgium

Bright yellow when ripe, marked with patches and veins of cinnamon-colored russet

Originated by Major Esperen in 1847.

November.

Fruit above medium size, pyramidal. Flesh tender, buttery, and melting, very juicy, sugary, and perfumed.

Eyewood

England

Greenish-yellow, very much covered with pale brown russet, and large russet dots

Raised by Mr. T. A. Knight, President of the Horticultural Society, and was named after Eyewood, near Kington.

Ripen in October.

Fruit below medium size, Bergamot-shaped. Flesh yellowish, exceedingly tender and melting, very juicy, with a sprightly vinous flavor, and a fine aroma.

Favre (Madame Favre)

France

Light green, straw-yellow when ripe often with little blush on the sunny side, dotted with numerous small gray dots. green stripes extend from the Stalk.

Originated in 1863 by horticulturalist M. Favre (France). Seedling from an open pollination of Beurre Ardanpon variety.

Ripen by 1-5 September.

Above medium size, weighing 150-180 g, of original rounded shape or wide-pyriform with uneven surface, with a fleshy knob at the Stalk. Skin is fragrant, somewhat rigid to the touch, thick at the base of the Stalk sometimes with small rust. Skin is dry, slightly rough in storage. Stalk is very long, straight or arcuate curved, thick, nodular, with large fleshy ocrea at the lower end, it is more or less aslant set and surrounded by bulging folds at the base.
flesh is yellowish white, buttery, juicy, sweet, aromatic, usually has a very good taste, however, sometimes has some tartness.

Fevralskaya (Imunnaya) (February immune)

Russia

Pale yellow

Originated from pollination of Dekanka zimnyaya with mixed pollen (Josephine de Malines + Beurre Ardanpon). Authors: P.P. Kostyk, A.I. Tereschenkova, L.V. Hachetlova.

Ripen in late September.

Above medium size, widely-pyriform shape, symmetrical, slightly ribbed. Skin is smooth, dry, and glossy in storage. Stalk is straight.
Flesh is white, yellowish, oily, acid-sweet, desert taste.

Fevralskiy Suvernir (February souvenir)

Russia

Greenish-yellow during harvest, yellow with diffused covering consumer period.

Originated by a cross between Talgarskaya Krasavitsa (Talgar beauty) and Doch Zari (Daughter of Dawn) varieties. Authors: S.P. Yakovlev, A.P. Gribanovsky, N.I. Saveliev, V.V. Chivilev, S.S. Yakovleva.

Ripen in the second decade of September

Medium and above medium size, weighing 130-200 g, elongated-pyriform, regular shape, smooth. Skin is medium, smooth, and oily, with a waxy coating. Stalk is medium, straight, straight set. The flesh is white, medium solid, tender, and half-buttery, very juicy, without tartness or granulations, acid-sweet, with medium aroma.

Feyeriya

Russia

Greenish during harvest with diffused covering, greenish-yellow with diffused crimson covering.

Originated by cross between Talgarskaya Krasavitsta (Talgar Beauty) and Doch Zari (Daughter Dawn) varieties in Michurin All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture. Authors: S.P. Yakovlev, A.N. Saveliev, V.V. Chivilev.

Ripen in early September

Medium and large, weighing 130-210g, elongated-pyriform, smooth, regular shape. Skin is medium, smooth, and oily, with a waxy coating. Stalk is long, curved. Flesh is white, medium solid, half-buttery, very juicy, sweet taste, with an average flavor.

Figue d'Alencon (Bonnissime de la Sarthe; Figue d'Hiver)

France

Greenish-yellow, strewed with russety dots.

Originated about 1829. Named for city of Alencon.

Ripen in November and December.

Medium sized, pyriform. Flesh greenish, melting, juicy, sweet, and vinous.

Fla 39-40

USA

Green with slight blush.

W.B.Sherman, University of Florida.

Harvest: Very early season.

Small medium, oval with Stalk. Medium tender, white flesh, small core, good

texture, few grit cells, good flavour.

Fla 57-75

USA

Smooth with light red blush.

W.B.Sherman, University of Florida.

Harvest: Early season.

Small to medium, round turbinate with Stalk. Good texture and flavour, best of these three,

sweet, medium core, few grit cells.

Fla 58-45

USA

Red blush on russet.

W.B.Sherman, University of Florida.

Harvest: Early season, similar to Fla 57-75.

Medium large, oval with persistent Stalk. High aroma and flavor, slightly coarse, medium grit, tart, medium sweet, small core.

Flordahome

USA

Attractive, light green.

Hood x Tenn, Florida.

Harvest: Very early season, about 15 days before Hood.

Medium small, obtuse pyriform. Smooth,

tender, melting, very juicy flesh, few grit cells around small core, good pear flavor.

Fondante des Charneux (Belle Fxcellente; Beurre des Charneuses; Desiree Van Mons; Duc de Brabant; Miel de Waterloo)

Belgium

Greenish-yellow, with a faint tinge of red on the side next the sun, and thickly strewed with russet dots

Originated by M. Legipont about 1800. Chance seedling. Named for city of Charneau.

Ripen in November.

Fruit large, pyriform, uneven in its outline. Flesh tender, buttery, and melting, sugary, and richly flavored.

Fondante de Malines

Belgium

Uniform deep golden yellow with cinnamon russet; deeper yellow, with a crimson blush, and spotted with crimson dots on the sunny side.

Raised by Major Esperen, at Malines, in 1842.

Ripen in November and continuing till December.

Large; even, and handsomely shaped, obtusely obovate, blunt at the stalk. Stalk is fleshy at the base, and set in a narrow round funnel. Flesh is white, buttery, and melting, juicy, sweet, and with a fine aroma.

Forelle

Patent (Flemmings)

USA

Green with a red blush,

attractive, speckled with pronounced lenticels,

marks very easily.

Originated in Germany probably early

1700s, red pear probably a parent of Corella,

U.S.A.

Harvest: Late season.

 

Small to medium, needs NAA against

fruit drop.  Good quality, delicate,

sweet, bit coarse.

Frederic de Wurtemburg

Belgium

Deep yellow, marbled and dotted with red on the shaded side, and of a beautiful bright crimson next the sun

This was raised by Van Mons around 1812, and was dedicated, by request, to Frederic L, King of Wurtemberg.

Ripen in October.

Fruit large, obtuse-pyriform. Flesh very white, tender, buttery, and melting, rich, juicy, sugary, and delicious.

 

Gansel-Seckle

England

Solid bright crimson blush on the sunny side, yellow in shade covered with a thin smooth crust of cinnamon russet, and the crimson blush is strewed with distinct dots of grey russet.

Raised by the late Mr. Williams, of Pitmaston, Worcester, obtained by crossing Seckle with Gansel's Bergamot, and Mr. Williams named it Gansel-Seckle, not Gansel's Seckle.

Ripen in the beginning of November.

Not unlike the Seckle in shape, and also with much of the character of Gansel's Bergamot on a small scale. Stalk is generally short and stout, set in a narrow and rather deep cavity. Flesh is yellowish, rather coarse-grained and gritty, with a sweet, abundant, and very richly-sugared juice, and a high aroma, but not so much so as in Seckle.

General Todtleben

Belgium

Yellow, covered with dots and patches of-brown russet.

A new Belgian pear, which fruited for the, first time in 1855, said to be very excellent.

In use from December to February.

Fruit very large, pyriform. Flesh with a rosy tinge, very melting and juicy, slightly gritty, with a rich, sugary, and perfumed juice.

Gimrinskaya

Daghestan

Green at the harvest time, greenish-yellow during consuming period.

Old Dagestan variety.

Ripen from 10 to 20 October.

Large and very large sized fruit, average mass - 286g, maximal 1000g. Short pyriform, widely ribbed. Smooth, slightly rough surface. Long and thick Stalk. Greenish-yellow flesh, very juicy, coarse-grained, stony granulations, acid-sweet, good taste.   

Glou Morceau (Beurre de Cambronne; Beurre d' Hardenpont; Beurre de Kent; Beurre Lombard; De Cambron; Colmar d'Hiver; Got Luc de Cambron; Goulu Morceau; Hardenjpont d'Hiver; Linden d'Automne; Roi de Wurtemburg)

Belgium

Pale greenish-yellow, covered with greenish-grey russet dots, and slight markings of russet

This variety was raised by Councillor Hardenpont at Mons. Van Mons named it Roi de Wurtemberg.

In use from December to January.

Fruit above medium size, obovate, narrowing obtusely from the bulge to the eye and the stalk. Skin smooth. Flesh white, tender, smooth, and buttery, of a rich and sugary flavor.

Golden Queen

England

Clear straw-color with a few minute dots.

This was raised at the Royal Gardens, Frogmore, near Windsor, first exhibited in 1872.

Ripen in September, but speedily rots at the core.

Small, obovate. Stalk is placed without depression. Flesh is very tender and extremely juicy, sweet and highly aromatic.

Golden Russet

England

Bright cinnamon russet.

Raised at the Royal Gardens, Frogmore, near Windsor, first exhibited in 1863.

Ripen in October. Soon rots at the core.

Small; obtuse obovate. Stalk is very stout and fleshy. Flesh is yellow, fine-grained, buttery and melting, juicy, sweet, and with a flavor resembling that of Marie Louise.

Goryachevodskaya

Russia

Green with golden-red blush at the time of harvest, become golden-yellow with bright red blush covering the major part of the fruit.

Originated by hybridization of Williams x Flemish Beauty varieties. Authors: P.V. Kuznecov.

Ripen in mid September.

Large or very large (mass - 200-400g), bluntly conic or truncated pyriform, uniform. Good taste.

Graslin

France

Greenish yellow with thick green and russet dots.

This one wasI found in the department of La Sarthe and named after the family of Graslin, owners of the Chateau Malitourne.

Ripen in October and November.

Large, roundish obovate. Stalk is thick and stout, placed without depression. Flesh is tender and melting, with a pleasant acidulous and musky flavor.

Green Yair

Scotland

Dark green, changing to yellowish-green as it ripens, and strewed with patches and dots of russet.

It was raised at Yair, on the Tweed, in Peeblesshire.

Ripen in September.

Fruit below medium size, obovate. Skin smooth. Flesh tender, juicy, and sugary.

Grégoire Bordillon

France

Pale yellow in shade, and deep yellow with dull red on the sunny side, the surface more or less covered with rough russet.

This was raised by M. Andre Leroy, of Angers, and dedicated to his friend M. Grégoire Bordillon, formerly Prefect of the Department of Maine-et-Loire.

Ripen in August

Rather large; roundish turbinate. Stalk is short, thick, and fleshy, placed without depression. Flesh is yellowish white, melting, very juicy and sugary, of an exquisite aroma.

Groom's Princess Royal

England

Greenish, marked with russet, and with a brownish tinge next the sun.

Raised by Mr. Groom, a nurseryman at Clapham, near London, soon was sent out by his son-in-law named of Matthews's Eliza.

In use from January till March.

Fruit medium sized, roundish. Flesh buttery, melting, rich, and sugary.

Gros Rousselet (Gros Rousselet de Rheims; Grey Goose; Roi d' Eté)

England

fine deep yellow color, with brownish-red next the sun, and thickly strewed with russety dots

This pear has been long cultivated in England, mentioned since 1665.

August and September.

Fruit medium sized, obtuse-pyriform, and rounded at the apex. Flesh white, tender, half-melting, very juicy, vinous, and musky.

Hacon's Incomparable (Downham Seedling)

England

pale yellowish-green, sometimes with a brownish tinge on one side, and strewed with russety dots

This variety probably have been raised by Mr. J. G. Hacon, of Downham Market, Norfolk, around 1815, from a seed of a variety known in that county as Raynor's Norfolk Seedling. Another account states that the original tree was growing in a yard behind a baker's house, and no one knew who planted it.

In use from November to January.

Fruit above medium size, roundish. Flesh white, buttery and melting, with a rich sugary, vinous, and highly perfumed flavor.

Harrow Delight

Canada

Light green with light blush, prominent lenticels.

Williams’ x Purdue 80-51 (Old Home x

Early Sweet), R.E.C.Layne, Harrow, Ontario,

Canada.

Harvest: Very early season, 2 weeks before

Williams’.

 

Ovate pyriform, short storage, medium size, can be improved by thinning. Buttery and very juicy flesh, free of stone cells, good flavor.

Henckel D’Hiver (Beurré Beauchamp of Dittrich, not of Leroy; Henkel's Schmalzbirne)

Belgium

pale brown or cinnamon russet, except in shad, where it is yellow, or greenish yellow with the same colorrusset.

This is a seedling of Van Mons, named after the chemist Henkel.

Ripen in the middle and end of October.

Medium sized; ovate in shape, even and regular. Stalk is fleshy at the base, and set in a small cavity. Flesh is quite white, very melting, tender, and juicy. Juice in abundance, very sprightly, with a fine rose-water aroma.

Henriette Bouvier (Henriette; Belle  Henriette)

Belgium

Pale yellow, covered with patches and network of smooth cinnamon-colored russet, and sometimes with an orange tinge next the sun.

This variety was raised by M. Bouvier, of Jodoigne, in 1825.

Ripen in the beginning and middle of December.

Fruit about medium size, roundish-obovate Flesh very tender, buttery and melting, very rich and sugary, with a fine perfume.

Hera

Russia

Green base with red or pink covering color.

Originated from a cross between Reale Turinskaya x Doch Zari. Authors: S.P. Yakovlev, A.P. Gribanovskiy, N.I. Savelyev, V.Yu. Akimov in All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit plants named after I.V. Michurin.

Ripen in mid September.

Large fruit, mass – 175-250g, wide pyriform, smooth, regular shaped. Skin is average, dry, with rusty grid. Medium aslant set Stalk. Creamy flesh is of average density, tender, half-oily, fine-grained, juicy, with few granulations, subacid-sweet with slight aroma.

Hessle (Hasel; Hazel; Hessel)

England

Greenish-yellow, very much covered with large russety dots, which give it a freckled appearance.

Originated in Hessle, about 1827. Chance seedling.

Ripen in October.

Fruit below medium size, turbinate. Flesh tender, very juicy, sweet, and with a high aroma.

Hood

USA

Smooth, yellow-green.

Florida, USA. Unknown origin.

Harvest: Early season.

Large, round oval with dehisced Stalk. Buttery

flesh with few grit cells, sweet, mild pear flavor, breakdown from core.

Howell (Jonah’s Seedling)

USA

Green to pale yellow, very

smooth, attractive.

A seedling of Jonah, Thomas Howell,

New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. 1840.

Harvest: Mid season.

Medium to medium large, obovate

pyriform. White buttery flesh, slightly granular, juicy, sweet, firm, medium

texture.

Huyshe's Bergamot

England

Russet

John Huyshe’s pear, of Clysthydon, Devon.

In use in the end of December and January.

Fruit large, inclining to obovate. Skin tolerably smooth, considerably covered with russet. Flesh yellowish-white, exceedingly melting and juicy, somewhat gritty at the core; rich, sugary, and delicious.

Huyshe's Prince Consort

England

Grass-green sometimes turning to yellowish green; with thick large russet dots, form a russet patch at the stalk.

It was raised by the Rev. John Huyshe, of Clysthydon, Devon, from Beurré d'Arem-berg, fertilised by Passe Colmar.

Ripen in the end of November.

Very large; oblong, uneven and bossed. Stalk is stout and woody, placed in a line with the axis of the fruit in a small funnel. Flesh is yellowish, with a greenish touch, melting, but not buttery, being rather crisp, very juicy, sweet and vinous, with a very powerful and peculiar flavor unlike any other pear.

Huyshe's Prince of Wales (Huyshe's Bergamot)

England

Cinnamon russet on a lemon-yellow background.

This pear was raised from Gansel's Bergamot by Rev. John Huyshe, of Clysthydon, Devon.

 

Ripen in the end of November, and keeps till January.

 

Large; roundish oval, even. Stalk is stout and woody, somewhat obliquely placed in a round and rather open funnel. Flesh is yellowish white, tender, melting, and juicy, richly flavored, and with an aroma similar to that of the Autumn Bergamot.

Huyshe's Princess of Wales

England

Similar in color with Marie Louise, a lemon-yellow background with patches, veins, and dots of pale cinnamon russet.

Raised by Rev. John Huyshe, of Clysthydon, Devon.

Ripen in the end of November.

Medium sized; oblong, even, and abrupt at the stalk. Stalk is stout and woody, somewhat obliquely placed in a round and rather wide funnel. Flesh is yellow, fine-grained, very melting, abundantly juicy, and richly flavored, with a very high aroma.

Huyshe's Victoria

England

Yellowish freckled with russet.

Raised by Rev. John Huyshe, of Clysthydon, Devon.

In use during December and January.

Fruit medium sized, oval and almost cylindrical, flat at the ends. Flesh melting, rather gritty at the core, juicy, rich, and sugary, with a brisk acidity.

Ilyinka

Russia

Light-green base with diffused pink blush covering 1/5 of the fruit. Large, green hypodermal dots in areole. 

Originated by popular selection. Genetic origin is unknown.

Ripen by the second half of July.

Medium sized with mass up to 130g, outlined, short pyriform, skin is dry to feel. Stalk is up to 4 cm, curved, woody, bare, set aslant, with a small callus. White flesh with an average consistency, coarse-grained, half-oily, with a few stony cells. It has a sweet taste and weak aroma. 

Iyulskaya Rannyaya (Early July)

Russia

Yellowish-green at the harvest time, lemon-yellow with a bright blush on the sunny side when ripe. Small, slightly visible hypodermal dots.

Originated in North-Caucasus zonal research institute of promiculture and viticulture (unknown origin). Authors: L.M. Sergeev and Ye.I. Kosteckaya.

Ripen by mid July.

Medium sized fruit, mass – 120g, bottle-shaped, univariate, smooth surface. Skin is tender and mat. Long, straight or curved Stalk. Flesh is white, tender, juicy, acid-sweet and has a good taste.

Jargonelle (Beau Present; Belle Vierge; Beurre de Paris; Chopine; Cueillette; Epargne; Be Fosse; Grosse Cuisse Madame; Mouille Bouche d'Ete; Sweet Summer; St. Lambert; St. Samson; De la Table des Princes)

France

Greenish-yellow, with a tinge of dark brownish-red next the sun

An old French pear, dating from about 1600

Ripen in August.

Fruit large and pyriform. Flesh yellowish-white, tender, melting, and very juicy, with a rich piquant flavor, and slight musky aroma.

Jewess (La Juive)

Belgium

Uniform pale yellow color, mottled with pale brown russet, and thickly covered with russet dots.

This variety was raised by Major Esperen, of Malines, first fruiting occurred in 1843.

Ripen in December.

Fruit medium sized, pyramidal. Flesh yellowish, buttery, and melting, very juicy, sugary, and rich.

Josephine de Malines

Belgium

Greeny yellow with slight russet.

Chance seedling from Major Esperen of Malines, 1830.

Harvest: Late season.

Turbinate, small to medium. Fine-grained, high quality flesh, juicy, excellent flavor, good storage.

Jules D’Aibolles (De Liron D’Airolles)

Canada

Bright green, with bright red on the sunny side, the bright green turns to greenish yellow as it ripens.

The variety raised by M. Leon Leelerc, of Laval, and named after M. de Liron d'Airolles, a notable French pomologist. Another variety raised by Grégoire, of Jodoigne, also named in honor of M. de Liron d'Airoiles, a large round fruit.

In use from the end of October till the end of November.

 

About medium sized; pyriform. Skin is smooth. Stalk is rather stout, placed in a slight funnel. Flesh is white, delicate, melting, very juicy, with a rich vinous flavor, and delicate aroma.

Kabardinka

Russia

Greenish-yellow with brick-red blush.

Originated by hybridization of Beurre Ardanpon x Clapp’s Favorite. Authors: P.P. Kostyk, A.I. Tereschenkova, L.V. Hachetlova.

Consumption period: September – October.

Medium sized fruit, wide pyriform. Skin is smooth, slightly oily and glossy. Long and slightly curved Stalk. Flesh is greenish-white, tender, oily, juicy, has a good sweetly-acid taste.

Kafedralnaya (Cathedral)

Russian

Greenish-yellowish at the harvest time, light-yellow with diffused red covering. Numerous green and gray, slightly visible hypodermal dots.

Originated from a cross between seedling 32-67 (Tyoma x Flemish Beauty) x 72-43 (Duchesse Bedro x Flemish Beauty). Authors: S.T. Chizhov, S.P. Potapov.

Ripen by early August

Medium or below medium size, mass 110g, of regular pyriform shape, with uneven surface. Skin is tender, smooth, slightly oily and glossy. Stalk is medium long, slightly curved. White flesh of average density, tender, half-oily, fine-grained, juicy, acid-sweet with an average flavor. 

Karatayevskaya

Russia

Whitish with diffused, striped dark-red blush. Numerous green well visible hypodermal dots.

Originated in the M.A Lisavenko research institute of promiculture of Siberia from pollination of Granddaughter with pollen of Desert mliyevskaya. Authors: I.A. Puchkin, I.P. Kalinina, E.P. Karatayeva.

Ripen by mid September

Below medium size mass – 107g, widely pyriform or widely ovoid, on the long thin Stalk. Skin is not coarse, smooth, oily, and glossy. White flesh of average density, half-oily, stingy, very juicy, acid-sweet with spice, good taste.  

Keiffer

USA

Ripens to a creamy yellow color with many conspicuous brown lenticels.

Originated by P. Keiffer in 1868 from a seed of Ussuriysk or Chinese sandy pear, which flowers were pollinated with Beurre Anjou pollen, according to one data, or with Williams’s pollen, according to the other.

Ripen by late September.

Fruit is medium to large size, turbinate, or barrel-shaped, uneven. Skin is thick, dry, and rough to the feel.    

Kjure (Winter Williams)

France

Green at harvest, light-yellow sometimes with a slight pinkish blush and numerous slightly visible, small hypodermal dots. Some of the fruit have a typical rusty-brown stripe that extends from a bell to Stalk.

Originated as a chance seedling. In 1760 it was discovered by Fromento (France) kjure Leroix in a forest, he is credited for the spread of this variety.

Winter

Above medium sized fruit (mass-160-190g), or large (200-250g), elongated-pyriform, a little anisopleural. Skin is smooth, thick, solid, mat. Long, medium thick Stalk with a thickening at the attaching point to the tree, slightly curved, set aslant, fast attached to the fruit turning here into a pulpy knoll.  Flesh is white, juicy, fine-grained, of average density, acid-sweet with a slight tartness and stony cells near the seminal loculus and weak aroma.

Krasavitsa Chernenko (Russkaya Krasavitsa), eng: (Chernenko Beauty, Russian Beauty)

Russia

Greenish with occasional slight blush at the harvest time, greenish-yellow with diffused brick-red blush at the consuming period.

Originated in I.V. Michurin All-Russian research institute of Genetics and selection of Fruit plants, from a cross between Doch Blankovoy and Beurre Ardanpon varieties. Authors: S.F. Chernenko.

Ripen by late August

Large, oblong-pyriform, medium univariate, uneven. Skin is medium thick with a slight waxy bloom. Long, thick, and curved Stalk. Flesh is white, slightly mat, very juicy of average density, half-oily, acid-sweet with a slight flavor.

Krasnobokaya (Red-flanked)

Russia

Green at the harvest, greenish-yellow with diffused, beautiful crimson blush when ripe.

Originated in South-Ural research institute of Fruit & Vegetable Growing and Potato Growing, from a cross between Nezhnost (Tenderness) and Zheltoplodnaya (Xanthocarpous). Authors:

September

Medium sized fruit mass – 130g, univariate, of regular pyriform shape. Skin is tender, smooth, and oily. Very juicy flesh of good taste.

Krasnodarskaya Letnyaya (Summer Krasnodar)

Russia

Greenish with diffused pinkish-purple blush, few hypodermal dots.

Originated in North-Caucasus zonal research institute of promiculture and viticulture by L.M. Sergeev. Original parents unknown.

Harvest: 10-20 of August.

Medium sized, widely pyriform. Skin is dry, slightly rough and glossy. Flesh is  light-yellow, tender, oily, juicy, acid-sweet, with a very nice aroma, and excellent taste.

Krasnoyarskaya Krupnaya (Krasnoyarsk Large)  

Russia

Greenish with lighter spots representative for variety, and well visible emerald green hypodermal dots.

Originated on Krasnoyarsk trial station of promiculture from a cross between Tyoma and Beurre Winter Michurin.  Authors: N.N. Tihonov and A.S. Tolmachyova.

Summer

Large fruit for Siberia. Shortly pyriform, sometimes uneven. Stalk is long, thick, slightly curved. White flesh of average density, tender, with granulations in some years. Acid sweet taste, tart in cold years.

Krasulya (Beauty)

Russia

Green with red covering at harvest time, greenish-yellow covered with purple or dark-red color at consuming period. Very attractive fruit accordingly named.

Originated in South-Ural research institute of Fruit & Vegetable Growing and Potato Growing from a cross between Pozdnyaya (Late) and Malenkaya Radost (Little Joy). Authors: E.A. Falkenberg

Ripen by early summer

Below medium size, average mass – 90g, maximal – 120g. Medium univariate, Bergamot-shaped, roundish. Skin is tender, smooth, oily, and glossy. Thick and straight Stalk. Creamy, friable, tender, half-oily, very juicy flesh of excellent taste with spice and average flavor.

Kubanskaya Pozdnyaya (Late Kuban)

Russia

Greenish with a light tan at harvest time, greenish-yellow with inconspicuous hypodermal dots at consuming period.

Originated in North-Caucasus zonal research institute of promiculture and viticulture by L.M. Sergeev and Ye.I. Kosteckaya. Origin unknown.

Ripen by September

Medium sized fruit (mass – 150g), univariate, pyriform, regular shape, slightly uneven surface. Skin is dry and slightly rough. Stalk is slightly curved. Flesh is greenish-yellow of average density, tender, oily, acid-sweet, and aromatic.

Kubanskaya Sochnaya (Juicy Kuban)

Russia

Greenish- yellow at harvest time, golden-yellow with brick-red diffused covering.

Originated in North-Caucasus zonal research institute of promiculture and viticulture L.M. Sergeev and Ye.I. Kosteckaya. Origin unknown. 

Ripen by mid July.

Medium sized fruit, regular shape, mass – 130g, medium univariate, pyriform, smooth surface. Skin is oily and glossy. Flesh is creamy, tender, juicy, acid-sweet, with an average aroma.

Kupava

Russia

Golden-yellow with a bright red blush covering up to a third of the fruit. Few, small, slight visible, green hypodermal dots.

Originated in a M.A. Lisavenko research institute of promiculture of Siberia by pollination of Tyoma with Clapp’s Favorite. Authors: I.A. Puchkin, I.P. Kalinina, E.P. Karatayeva, M.I. Borisenko.

Ripen by mid September.

Below medium size, mass - 88g, pyriform, slightly slant, significantly uneven with abrupt rise to the top.  Skin is not coarse, oily and glossy.  Flesh is white, solid, stingy, medium juicy, acid-sweet, and has a rather good taste.

Kuyumskaya

Russia

Greenish- yellow at harvest time, light-yellow at consuming period. Numerous medium rusty hypodermal dots

Originated in a M.A. Lisavenko research institute of promiculture of Siberia by plating of seeds from a open pollination of lukashovka-varieties. Authors: V.S. Putov and I.A. Puchki.

Ripen by late August.

Small fruit, mass-58g, shortly-pyriform.  Skin is coarse and rough. Long, medium thick curved Stalk.  Flesh is white, solid, coarse, fine-grained, has a moderate taste.

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